After both chambers approved the legislation, he obtained royal approval on January 23. Royal Assent is the approval of the monarch to include the bill in an Act of Parliament (Law). MEPs debated key areas of the law at second reading on Monday (January 13th). Among the participants were the opposition spokesman for leaving the EU and the president of the Liberal Democrats in the Lords. On 15 November 2018, the day after the agreement and the support of the British government were presented, several members of the government resigned, including Dominic Raab, Secretary of State for leaving the European Union.  The agreement covers issues such as money, citizens` rights, border agreements and dispute resolution. It also includes a transition period and an overview of the future relationship between the UK and the EU. It was published on 14 November 2018 and was the result of the Brexit negotiations. The agreement was approved by the heads of state and government of the other 27 EU countries and by the British government led by Prime Minister Theresa May, but it faced opposition from the British Parliament, which needed approval for ratification. The approval of the European Parliament would also have been necessary. On January 15, 2019, the House of Commons rejected the withdrawal agreement by 432 votes to 202.  The House of Commons again rejected the agreement by 391 votes to 242 on 12 March 2019 and rejected it a third time, on 29 March 2019, by 344 votes to 286.
On 22 October 2019, the revised withdrawal agreement negotiated by Boris Johnson`s government approved the first phase in Parliament, but Johnson halted the legislative process when the accelerated approval programme failed to receive the necessary support and announced his intention to declare a general election.  On 23 January 2020, Parliament ratified the agreement by adopting the withdrawal agreement; On 29 January 2020, the European Parliament approved the withdrawal agreement. It was then concluded by the Council of the European Union on 30 January 2020. During this transitional period, the UK government and the EU will ideally negotiate a data protection agreement that meets the needs of both parties, whether it is an adequacy decision, a data protection shield agreement or another agreement allowing the free flow of data between the UK and the EU. The UK and EU said they are “committed to ensuring a high level of protection of personal data to facilitate such flows between them” and hope to have agreements reached by the end of the transition period. The UK has launched the formal process of withdrawal negotiations by formally announcing the European Council`s intention to leave the EU. But Mr Gove said: “I look forward to the second reading of the bill next week. This is an opportunity for the government to explain in detail why we have this legislation. On 15 January 2019, the House of Commons voted with 230 votes against the Brexit withdrawal agreement, the largest vote against the British government in history.  The government may survived a vote of confidence the next day.  On March 12, 2019, the House of Commons voted 149 votes against the agreement, the fourth-biggest defeat of the government in the history of the House of Commons.  A third vote on the Brexit withdrawal agreement, widely expected on 19 March 2019, was rejected by the House of Commons spokesman on 18 March 2019, on the basis of a parliamentary convention of 2 April 1604, which prevented British governments from forcing the House of Commons to vote several times on a subject already voted on by the House of Commons.
   An abbreviated version of the withdrawal agreement, in which the annex political statement had been withdrawn, consisted of the test of “substantial amendments,” so that a third vote was held on 29 March 2019, but was rejected by 58 votes.  On 20 December 2019, after the Conservatives won the 2019 British general election, the House of Commons passed second reading of the withdrawal agreement with a 358-234 lead.