In the United States, executive agreements are made exclusively by the President of the United States. They are one of three mechanisms through which the United States makes binding international commitments. Some authors view executive agreements as treaties of international law because they bind both the United States and another sovereign state. However, under U.S. constitutional law, executive agreements are not considered treaties within the meaning of the contractual clause of the U.S. Constitution, which requires the Council and the approval of two-thirds of the Senate to be considered a treaty. President Dwight D. Eisenhower rejected the amendment on the grounds that it would obstruct the presidency`s conduct of foreign policy. In a letter to his brother Edgar, a lawyer who supported the resolution, Eisenhower said it would “paralyze the executive to the point of disempowering us in world politics.” The Eisenhower administration was well aware that most Republicans accepted the proposal and that its opposition was therefore carefully measured. After failing to reach a compromise with Bricker troops, Eisenhower sought the support of Democrats in the Senate. Georgian Senator Walter George introduced his own amendment, which confirmed the constitutional supremacy over treaties and executive agreements. In a key passage that reflected widespread opposition to the widespread use of unilateral executive agreements, De George`s proposal would have necessitate the implementation of legislation on executive agreements (but not for treaties) in the United States. The Eisenhower administration was strongly committed to defeating the Bricker and George proposals, in part because the councillors believed they would remove important prerogatives from the president and transfer foreign affairs authority from the executive to the legislature.
The Bricker Amendment was defeated by 50 votes to 42 in the Senate on February 25, 1954. But George`s amendment did better; it was only one vote below the two-thirds required for probate. To discuss the power of Congress to influence international agreements, international law and U.S. foreign relations through its political powers, such as surveillance and means powers, see Henkin, supra note 22, at 81-82. In the United States, executive agreements are binding at the international level when negotiated and concluded under the authority of the President on foreign policy, as commander-in-chief of the armed forces or from a previous congressional record.