Addressee Agreement On Demonstratives

But are locotors really self-centered when using a space demonstrator? Analysis of daily, face-to-face multimodal corporations indicates otherwise. For example, the Turkish-speaking spokespeople use the demonstratoral language specifically for speakers who are not yet at the recipient`s visual centre, and the illustration for the speakers who are at the recipient`s visual centre (see also `ezyurek`, 1998). Thus, spokespeople would not use a system of self-centered coordinates, but would take into account the views of the recipient. Jungbluth (2003) also reports that the physical orientation of the two interlocutors during a conversation fuels the demonstrative choice in Spanish. When spokespeople and recipients are face to face in a conversational comedy, all speakers within the Dyade are treated as proximal “without differentiation” (Jungbluth, 2003, p. 19). As a result, spokespeople may not be as self-centered in the use of a demonstrator. Recently, Peeters et al. (2015b) studied a demonstrative understanding in a paradigm where participants heard phrases containing a demonstrative, while they saw an image of a spokesperson manually showing one of the two visible objects. Higher processing costs were identified for understanding distal data compared to proximal demonstrators when stakeholders were in the common space between the spokesperson and the participant (see Figure 1).1). Recipients therefore considered whether there was a speaker inside or outside the space shared with the spokesperson. No effect of the relative distance from speaker to spokesperson was found. These results suggest that demonstrative understanding is sociocentric and that we are now (Peeters et al., 2015b) rather than self-centered and driven by the self-here-now (Levelt, 1989).

Hungarian has two spatial demonstratives: ez (die) and az (das). These inflect for the number and case even in the attribute position (attributes generally remain uninflected in Hungarian) with possible spelling changes; z.B. ezzel (with this), abban (in this). A third degree of Deixis is also possible in Hungarian, with the help of the prefix Am: amaz (that it is). However, the use of these is strong (if the speaker wishes to emphasize distance) and not mandatory.